Butea superba (Thai red kwao krua) combats phytoestrogens in Californian men

Ihsan Ahmad As Saker, the victim. Killed for leaving Islam

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Molecule of the Month - Mustard Gas

Mustard gas is the common name given to 1,1-thiobis(2-chloroethane), a chemical warfare agent that is believed to have first been used near Ypres in Flanders on 12th July 1917. Its chemical formula is Cl-CH2-CH2-S-CH2-CH2-Cl

Its other names include H, yprite, sulfur mustard and Kampstoff Lost, but the name mustard gas became more widely used, because the impure "agent quality" is said to have an odour similar to that of mustard, garlic or horseradish. When pure, it is in fact both odourless and colourless.

It was synthesised much earlier than its first reported use, by a man named Frederick Guthrie in 1860, who reacted ethylene with Cl2, and noticed the toxic effects it had on his own skin. The effects of mustard gas exposure include the reddening and blistering of skin, and, if inhaled, will also cause blistering to the lining of the lungs, causing chronic impairment, or at worst, death. Exposure to high concentrations will attack the corneas of the eyes, eventually rendering the victim blind.

Any area of the body which is moist is particularly susceptible to attack by mustard gas, because although it is only slightly soluble in water, which makes it difficult to wash off, hydrolysis (the splitting of a compund by water) is rapid, and occurs freely.

It is important to note here that not only are mustard gas and hemi-mustard both vesicants (blister skin), but the hydrolysis reaction also produces three molecules of HCl, which in itself is a skin irritant.

Despite the ease of hydrolysis, mustard gas in its solid form has been found to last underground for up to ten years. This is because, in an environment where the concentration of water is relatively low, the reaction pathway is able to proceed once, thiodiglycol is formed using most of the water available at the solid surface, but then the sulfonium intermediate reacts with this instead of another molecule of water, as the concentration of water molecules at the bulk surface is now lower than the concentration of thiodiglycol. This produces stable, non-reactive sulfonium salts, which form a protective layer around the bulk material, and therefore prevent further reaction.

Mustard gas is a paticularly deadly and dehabilitating poison, but its real danger when it was first used in WW1, compared to other chemical warfare agents at the time, was the fact that it could penetrate all protective materials and masks that they had available at the time. In more recent years, urethane was discovered to be resistant to mustard gas, and also to have the advantages of being tough, resistant to cut growth, and to be stable at a wide range of temperatures.

One of the reasons that exposure to mustard gas must be prevented, rather than cured, is that detoxification is quite difficult due to its insolublity, and that the effects of mustard gas are devastating - essentially if the inhalation of the mustard gas itself does not kill you, it is very likely to cause cancer later in life. During WW1, doctors were fairly helpless for treating victims, as the only means of detoxification was by oxidation with hypochlorite bleaches - NaOCl- and (CaCOCl-)2 (a super-chlorinated bleach) were most commonly used.

Detoxification is no longer such a problem, as there are several methods developed in recent years which are quite efficient. Both sulphur amines (sulphur dissolved in amines) and magnesium monoperoxyphthalate have been found to quite good decontaminants, but, the best method is the use of peroxy acids (RCOOH, where R=C7H15, C9H19, C11H23, C13H27 ), as they react within a few seconds, and this rate of reaction can be enhanced further by use of a catalyst.

Mustard Gas as an Anti-Cancer Agent

Mustard gas has always been seen as a particularly nasty poison, resulting in a painful and often slow death, and, ironically, whilst it causes cancer, it has also been used to help cure it. It was in 1919, not long after the first usage of mustard gas, that it was noted that victims had a low blood cell count, because the mustard gas attacked white blood cells, and bone marrow aplasia (breakdown).

Research then began in 1946 to show that nitrogen mustards (differing only from mustard gas due to the presence of a nitrogen atom, not a sulphur atom) reduced tumor growth in mice, via a mechanism whereby 2 strands of DNA are linked by a molecule of nitrogen mustard.

It had already been shown that the sensitivity of the bone marrow of mice to mustard gas is similar to that of humans, and therefore resarch lead to clinical trials, and nitrogen mustards became part of modern chemotherapy treatment, being mainly used as a cure for cancer of the lmyph glands - Hodgkin's Disease.

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SA's second - and world's third - penis transplant recipient is one 'happy patient'

This is the third ever penis transplant conducted with the second one conducted in Boston at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

The recipient‚ a 40 year old man‚ has been without a penis for 17 years after a botched traditional circumcision. His name is being kept anonymous for ethical reasons.

“He is certainly one of the happiest patients we have seen in our ward. He is doing remarkably well. There are no signs of rejection and all the reconnected structures seem to be healing well‚” said Professor Andre Van der Merwe‚ Head of the Division of Urology at Stellenbosch University s Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.

The patient is expected to regain full use of his penis within six months of the transplant‚ said the release.

Medical tattooing will be used to correct the colour discrepancy between the recipient and the donor organ in six to eight months after the operation.

“Patients describe a penis transplant as ‘receiving a new life’. For these men the penis defines manhood and the loss of this organ causes tremendous emotional and psychological distress‚” said Dr Amir Zarrabi of the FMHS’s Division of Urology‚ who was a member of the transplant team. “I usually see cases of partial or total amputations in July and December – the period when traditional circumcisions are performed.”

The team consisted of Van der Merwe‚ Dr Alexander Zühlke‚ who heads the FMHS’ Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery‚ Prof Rafique Moosa‚ head of the FMHS’ Department of Medicine‚ Zarrabi and Dr Zamira Keyser of Tygerberg Hospital. They were assisted by transplant coordinators‚ anaesthetists‚ theatre nurses‚ a psychologist‚ an ethicist and other support staff.

The first ever penis transplant patient from December 2014 is using his penis as normal.

“The patient is doing extremely well‚ both physically and mentally”‚ says Van der Merwe. “He is living a normal life. His urinary and sexual functions have returned to normal‚ and he has virtually forgotten that he had a transplant."

The transplant procedure is very complicated as nerves‚ blood‚ vessels and muscle from the donor organ have to be connected to the recipient.

“The diverse presentation of the blood vessels and nerves makes the operation very challenging and means each case is unique. All these structures need to be treated with the utmost delicacy and respect in order to be connected perfectly to ensure good circulation and function in the long term‚” said Zühlke.

Micro-surgery was used to connect small blood vessels and nerves.

It is thought that up 250 partial or complete penile amputations take place a year in South Africa due to botched traditional circumcisions. “At Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital we are committed to finding cost-effective solutions to help these men‚” says Van der Merwe. The procedure was part of a proof of concept study to develop a cost-effective penile transplant procedure that could be performed in a typical theatre setting in a South African public sector hospital‚ he said.

The costs of the second procedure was much less than the first.

The biggest challenge to rolling out this procedure is the shortage of organs. “I think the lack of penis transplants across the world since we performed the first one in 2014‚ is mostly due to a lack of donors. It might be easier to donate organs that you cannot see‚ like a kidney‚ than something like a hand or a penis‚” said Van der Merwe.

“We are extremely grateful to the donor’s family who so generously donated not only the penis‚ but also the kidneys‚ skin and corneas of their beloved son. Through this donation they are changing the lives of many patients.

The patient had counselling over two years to explain and ensure he understood the operation is not a tried and tested treatment‚ but is still an experimental procedure with many risks.

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It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!

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WARNING GRAPHIC IMAGES: Man's DIY penis enlargement horror: 'I injected hot Vaseline'

A MAN who was self-conscious about the size of his penis was left unable to have sex after he took matters into his own hands.

Daily Star

By Laura Mitchell / Published 1st June 2015

n a bid to boost his manhood, Szilveszter injected his penis with hot Vaseline.

But the dad-of-two was left writhing in pain after his manhood started bleeding a few months later.

"I was talking to my friend about wanting to lose weight so my penis would look bigger when he replied, 'You don’t need to lose weight – I can help you,’” he explained on the last series of TLC show Extreme Beauty Disasters.

Szilveszter’s friend convinced him that it was a good idea to inject Vaseline into his penis – in a bid to make it look bigger.

“My friend injected my penis with Vaseline. Afterwards I was happy as it looked bigger," said Szilveszter.

But just a few months later, the DIY penis enlargement backfired when he began experiencing problems down below.

“It was painful and bleeding. I went to my GP, but he said he couldn’t help me," said Szilveszter.

"It hurt so much I had to stop having sex with my wife. It was the worst mistake of my life."

Szilveszter turned to Extreme Beauty Disasters resident plastic surgeon Dr Vik Vijh who said there was hope he could be cured – but it wouldn't be easy.

Dr Vijh explained: “Your body has formed scar tissue around the Vaseline because it's a foreign body, your body is trying to ward it off and it gives you these painful lumps, it will soon start to ulcer through the skin.

“The other problem is the foreskin is swelling and splitting – the foreskin is 15 times more swollen than should be.”

The cosmetic surgeon had to peel his penis like a banana to remove the scar tissue underneath.

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